is defined as the clinical situation in which a conventionally trained anesthesiologist experiences difficulty with face mask ventilation of the upper airway, difficulty with tracheal intubation, or both.
It can be further described as follows
1. Difficult face mask ventilation:
(a) It is not possible for the anesthesiologist to provide adequate face mask ventilation due to one or more of the following problems: inadequate mask seal, excessive gas leak, or excessive resistance to the ingress or egress of gas.
(b) Signs of inadequate face mask ventilation include (but are not limited to) absent or inadequate chest movement, absent or inadequate breath sounds, auscultatory signs of severe obstruction, cyanosis, gastric air entry or dilatation, decreasing or inadequate oxygen saturation (SpO2), absent or inadequate exhaled carbon dioxide, absent or inadequate spirometric measures of exhaled gas flow, and hemodynamic changes associated with hypoxemia or hypercarbia (e.g., hypertension, tachycardia, arrhythmia).
2. Difficult laryngoscopy:
3. Difficult tracheal intubation:
4. Failed intubation:
I have found a lot of resources on internet regarding the topic. I am sharing a few of them here….
A powerpoint presentation on the topic
I will post part two tomorrow with downloadable PDF guidelines from ASA and other societies. If you want to be informed of new articles via email, please subscribe through the box on the right.
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